In 1990, the United Kingdom released the world's first green building standards. Since then, the United States, Canada and other countries have successively promulgated various laws and regulations and industry standards surrounding the keyword green building. Since the establishment of the “Green Building Innovation Award” in China in 2004, China’s green buildings have entered a stage of comprehensive development.
In order to develop the construction industry and practice the concept of environmental protection and resource conservation, in 2006, the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development officially promulgated the “Green Building Evaluation Standards”. For more than ten years, this new construction industry development concept has been widely accepted by the industry and the masses, and many green building projects across the country have been put into construction.
However, while the green buildings have been actively put into practice throughout the country, many insiders have found that some green buildings in China have various problems in planning, construction and construction. Some construction projects claim to be “green”, and they still use traditional construction methods, which cause damage to the environment and still consume a lot of resources. After a decade of critical development, green buildings do not seem to be the mainstream of the construction industry as expected. This can't help but be confusing. Since green buildings have received strong support from the government and the people, why is it still "thunder and rain?"
“Green Benchmarking” There is no shortage of examples in the construction industry.
Looking at the country, in fact, green buildings have a number of successful cases. Whether in resource conservation, environmental protection, or in the building's constant temperature, daylighting, control noise and air quality, it has reached a high level. These cases not only confirm the feasibility and rationality of the concept of green building, but also become the forerunners and role models of China's construction industry.
Located in Shanghai, China, Johnson Controls Asia Pacific Headquarters has obtained three green building certifications including the three-star “China Green Building Design Logo Certification”. Although the building is not as green as the "green building" as imagined, the entire building actually practices the standards and requirements of green building from the inside out. Especially in the "lighting" this link is worth learning in the industry.
First of all, the building fully and scientifically uses natural light for daylighting. Different from traditional office buildings, all employees can enjoy the “window” working environment in this building. In the atrium position, sunlight can shine through the glass at the top into the building. At the same time, in order to avoid the indoor temperature rise caused by the direct sunlight, the top glass is arranged at a certain inclination angle, which ensures the daylighting on the one hand and effectively avoids some of the heat brought by the sunlight by the reflection. Therefore, even in the hot summer, it is not necessary to use a large amount of electric energy to use the air conditioner to reduce the indoor temperature.
Secondly, in order to avoid the negative impact of light pollution on the lives of surrounding residents, various measures have been taken in various aspects of the building. In areas where natural light is relatively weak, such as indoor corridors, all lighting equipment is embedded in the ceiling. When the light is turned on, the light inside the building is almost completely invisible from the outside. In addition, no luminous signs are installed on the outside of the building, and even the surrounding street lights are designed to be light sources downwards, illuminating the road while strictly controlling light pollution.
This year, the Shaanxi Provincial Science and Technology Resource Coordination Center office building designed by the China United Northwest Institute won the first prize of the 2017 National Green Building Innovation Award. At present, the building has been built and has been in use for five years, and its energy-saving level is impressive.
The feature of “energy saving” is almost all over the building. Indoor lighting and hot water are all realized by solar energy equipment, and no special power consumption is required. Due to its location in the northwestern part of China, indoor heating and air conditioning in ordinary buildings consumes a large amount of electric energy every year. To this end, the building makes full use of geothermal resources and reduces energy consumption for indoor heating in winter. The roof of the building is covered with green plants, with reasonable building shape, structure and sunshade design. In summer, there is no need to open air conditioning indoors. In addition, a number of unique designs, including rainwater harvesting systems and water reuse systems, have effectively reduced the level of water consumption within buildings.
It is not difficult to see that green building is not just a concept or a slogan. It is enough to confirm from these striking cases that green buildings are not groundless. On the contrary, it has enough reason to become the mainstream architectural concept and become the main work target of the construction industry in China in the future.
“Flowing everywhere” green building
In view of the existing success stories, the comprehensive promotion of green buildings is imperative. However, during this critical decade, green buildings have also had some issues that must be addressed in their development. From a macro perspective, the situation of “fake the truth and the truth” is appearing in the field of green architecture in China. The concrete manifestation is that the pseudo-green buildings are full of enthusiasm, and some architectural concepts cannot withstand scrutiny, and technological innovation is also constrained.
Due to the strong promotion of the central and local governments in recent years, green building projects are often easier to obtain policy and financial support and assistance. Many developers and construction units have seen such a rare opportunity, and they are "first to be strong" and actively apply for projects. On the one hand, it conforms to the general trend of green buildings, and on the other hand, it can also obtain considerable benefits and reputation. However, it is precisely because of such interests that some building units are under the banner of green buildings, and they are not necessarily built as real green buildings. There are cases where the declared architectural drawings and the actual construction drawings are in and out, the actual construction and use resources exceed expectations, and so on.
Some units that did intend to build green buildings lacked professional guidance during the planning stage, lacked professional talents, or lacked technical skills during the construction process, resulting in differences in construction results and expectations. Among them, some of them abandoned the green building route halfway through technical difficulties during the construction stage, and had to return to the traditional route, which cost a lot of resources; while others did not realize the expectation of green building for various reasons after the completion of construction. The effect, the advantages that green building should have is difficult to reflect.
The emergence of the above two situations, the reasons come from many aspects.
First of all, although the green building industry has some existing national or local policies and standards, in general, there are cases where the implementation is low and the joint supervision of all relevant departments is sometimes difficult to achieve. Some units took the opportunity to “drill the empty space” and construct traditional buildings under the name of green buildings.
Secondly, similar to the problems existing in the policy standards, the current green building evaluation standards still have room for further improvement. For example, China's green building design logo is divided into three levels: one star, two stars and three stars, and its requirements are from low to high. Some construction units are more convenient to obtain green buildings, while reducing construction difficulty and reducing cost investment. They are more inclined to declare one-star or two-star green building projects with lower difficulty. The cost of three-star projects is usually much higher than the former, so many construction units are reluctant to choose. For some green buildings that have been completed and put into use, in order to maximize profits, the property companies or construction units that are responsible for the use of the stage of supervision will no longer “strive for” the greening of the buildings, resulting in the aura of some buildings despite the star-level green buildings. But in fact, it does not really achieve the "green" effect. At this time, the relevant regulatory authorities are not strict in checking, or they are no longer going to investigate whether the building meets the standards of green buildings.
Third, the lack of “ambience” in green buildings hinders the long-term development of the industry. This includes specific issues in terms of cognitive level, market attention, and related talents and technologies. First of all, for the concept of green building, many people still have cognitive misunderstandings and cognitive blind spots. Some people do not know the true meaning of green buildings. It just sounds like green buildings are new concepts and new products. It seems to be better than traditional ones. building. Some developers have seized on this situation. In the early stage of construction and publicity, they emphasized that their houses are green buildings in order to gain more attention and benefits. However, it is not very clear that the people really have the characteristics and advantages of green buildings after they are actually built. In the construction industry, the high cost of green buildings in the short term has discouraged many developers and construction units. How green buildings gain more market attention and market share becomes a problem. Some developers regard building green buildings as “public welfare undertakings”, or think that green buildings are difficult to weather at present, which is time-consuming and labor-intensive. In terms of talents and technology, there are still regional differences in China's green building industry. According to the geographical location of the green building evaluation and identification project, it is not difficult to see that the development level of the southeast coastal areas is relatively high, and the conditions of capital, technology and talents are superior. Therefore, the number of green buildings is obviously higher than that of economically underdeveloped areas such as the central and western regions. The imbalance of development has indirectly led to the lack of a national “good atmosphere” for green buildings. The green building projects in some underdeveloped areas are ultimately “grounded” due to the shortage of talent technology.
The reasons for policy standards, evaluation and supervision, and industry atmosphere have constrained the long-term development of the green building industry in China. How to realize the “real price” of the green building project everywhere, and become the mainstream of the construction industry, it needs new ideas to break the bottleneck of the industry.
Industry integration "Green ideal" to achieve the road
In response to the bottlenecks in the field of green building, during the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, in the collective interview of “Implementing Innovation-Driven Development Strategy”, “China Building Materials News” reporter asked the secretary of the Science and Technology Committee of Shaanxi Provincial Committee and the Provincial Science and Technology Department on this issue. Director Lu Jianjun made a question. It can be seen from Lu Jianjun's answer that interdisciplinary exchange and integration, that is, industrial integration, will help green buildings break through bottlenecks, overcome problems and realize the “green ideals” of the construction industry.
Lu Jianjun said that green development should be achieved through technological innovation. Green building, energy conservation and environmental protection are interdisciplinary subjects, and they are a large-scale interdisciplinary subject, involving environmental protection, construction, materials and other subject areas. In order to solve the systemic problems of green buildings, it is necessary to build a number of relevant key laboratories through the integration of advantageous resources and cultivate a group of professional talents in the field of green buildings.
This seems to be only the innovation and development of talents and technology in green building, but it is actually the way forward for the whole industry. Through talent training, key laboratories will be set up, and scientific and technological innovation will be strengthened. In the short term, the purpose is to improve the level of science and technology related to green buildings in China. In the long run, excellent technical level and sufficient professionals can Effectively change the current imbalance in the development of green buildings, and the high cost of prohibition. On the other hand, it can indirectly spread and popularize the concept and significance of green buildings, and provide relevant information and materials for relevant departments. Perfect industry norms and assessment standards lay a solid foundation.
As Lu Jianjun said, the establishment of the State Key Laboratory of Green Buildings in the West provides a timely opportunity for industrial integration. Based on the national and provincial research teams, the laboratory rationally sets up the structure and scale of the personnel, and effectively integrates the laboratory directors, the leading figures in the disciplines and the national innovation research groups, the innovation team of the Ministry of Education, and the key points of Shaanxi Province. The scientific and technological innovation team and other human resources constitute a research team. At present, there are more than 60 researchers in the laboratory. 2 academicians including the Chinese Academy of Engineering, 4 winners of the National Outstanding Youth Fund, 1 winner of the National Outstanding Youth Fund, 1 winner of the “100 million” engineering leader, and the winner of the young and middle-aged science and technology talents of the Ministry of Science and Technology The elite team is ranked as the core team, and 15 academic experts in the field of green building have been appointed to form an academic committee.
The laboratory has four research directions: scientific basis and evaluation system research, eco-urban planning and green building design, structural performance and industrial construction technology, environmental control and resource utilization technology. These four topics seem to be general, and actually cover the life cycle research direction of green buildings from the aspects of architectural planning and design, construction and construction, operation management, and resource recycling. It will promote the development of China's green buildings from a market-oriented and commercialized mode to a scientific and standardized development. It is of great significance for the complete basic research, model research and development, experimental demonstration, and promotion and application of green building. It can be said that the establishment of these four research directions can effectively address the current problems in the field of green building and provide targeted academic results.
For the common goal, the State Key Laboratory of Green Building Materials will build on the building materials and contribute to the realization of “green ideals”. The key laboratory has five research directions, including basic research on the composition, structure and performance of green building materials; application basic research on high-efficiency energy-saving processing and manufacturing technology for building materials; basic research on new building materials and environmental functional building materials and their applications; Research on the service life and durability of building materials; testing methods and evaluation of green building materials. It can be seen that the construction of key laboratories not only takes into account all aspects of the development of green buildings from a macro perspective, but also realizes the integration of advantageous resources through industrial integration, and the formation of synergies among various disciplines, which are highly targeted to the field of green buildings. The problem is overcome.
China's green buildings have been relatively late, and in just over a decade, the achievements have been worthy of recognition. At the same time, some problems in the industry and obstacles in development are also inevitable. Relying on this industrial integration road, with the targeted solutions such as key laboratories, it will break through the development bottlenecks in one fell swoop, making green buildings truly universal in China and becoming the mainstream of the construction industry in the future.