Recently, China Building Energy Conservation Association released the “China Building Energy Consumption Research Report (2017)” in Shanghai, which first published the building energy consumption data of the provinces.
Green and low carbon development in the construction field is an important way to achieve the goal of "beautiful China"
In the whole life cycle, the building consumes 1/3 of the country's steel, 60-70% of cement, 1/3 of urban construction land, 1/3 of urban water, 40-50% of energy, energy and resources. The environmental impact is huge and it is an important area for the construction of ecological civilization. At the same time, the building also carries the people's demand for a healthier and more comfortable living space. The new era will further increase the requirements for green and low-carbon development in the construction field. Building energy efficiency is the key to achieving the goal of achieving carbon emissions in China. Relevant research shows that by 2050, the building sector's emission reduction potential is as high as 74%, which will contribute about 50% of energy savings to the peak carbon emissions.
Building energy consumption data is not serious
Energy consumption data is the basis for scientific advancement in building energy efficiency. At present, because China's energy statistics system has not yet been in line with international standards, the authoritative data on building energy consumption is missing. Different institutions or scholars have huge differences in the calculation results of China's building energy consumption, resulting in the distribution of data on China's building energy consumption as a proportion of national energy consumption. 15% to 50% within the large range. The lack of building energy consumption data in the provinces is more serious, the related research is not systematic, and the data are not comparable.
The China Building Energy Consumption Research Report (2017) uses the statistical yearbook as a data source. For the related statistical caliber changes, missing indicators, and incomplete data, the corresponding data processing methods are proposed to measure the energy of the provinces in 2015. Consumption of data, and analysis of the trend of national building energy consumption from 2001 to 2015.
National building energy consumption accounted for 20% of total national energy consumption in 2015
Data show that in 2015, China's total building energy consumption was 857 million tons of standard coal, accounting for 20% of the country's total energy consumption, including: public building energy consumption accounted for 341 million tons of standard coal consumption; urban residential building energy consumption 320 million tons of standard coal; rural building energy consumption of 197 million tons of standard coal. The total construction area of the country has reached 61.3 billion square meters, of which the public building area is about 11.3 billion square meters; the urban residential building area is 24.8 billion square meters; and the rural residential buildings are 25.2 billion square meters. Among the national total building energy consumption and area, the heating area and energy consumption of northern cities and towns are 12.9 billion square meters and 193 million tons of standard coal respectively, and the heating energy intensity is 14.9 kilograms of standard coal per square meter.
According to the situation of the provinces, the total energy consumption of urban buildings in different provinces is very different. The top three provinces and cities in total energy consumption of urban buildings in 2015 were 61.82 million tons of standard coal in Shandong, 55.73 million tons of standard coal in Guangdong, and 43.18 million in Jiangsu. Tons of standard coal, the last three are Hainan's 3.26 million tons of standard coal, Qinghai's 4.0 million tons of standard coal, and Ningxia's 4.3 million tons of standard coal. The urban population, the total GDP, and the climate zone are the three factors that have the greatest impact on the total energy consumption of urban buildings. The more urban population, the larger the GDP, the more provinces and cities with concentrated heating demand, the higher the total energy consumption of urban buildings. .
The energy consumption per capita of urban buildings is closely related to the climate zone. The per capita building energy consumption of urban and rural areas in the northern heating regions is 1.2 tons of standard coal, which is twice the average value of non-heating areas (0.62 tons of standard coal). For every 10,000 yuan of per capita GDP, the per capita building energy consumption of urban areas is increased by 105 kilograms of standard coal. .
The intensity of public construction power consumption and the intensity of public construction economic activity (the output value per unit area of the tertiary industry) show a significant linear relationship. For every 1,000 yuan increase in output per square meter, electricity consumption will increase by about 20kWh. The power consumption intensity of urban residential construction has a significant linear relationship with per capita GDP. For every 10,000 yuan of per capita GDP, the electricity consumption per square meter of residential buildings increases by about 3 kWh.
From the intensity of heating energy consumption in northern cities, Heilongjiang, Inner Mongolia, Jilin, Xinjiang, the top five energy consumption intensity, energy intensity is 20-21 kg standard coal / square meter, Henan, Shandong energy intensity is the lowest, at 11 kg standard Coal/square meter, Beijing, Tianjin heating energy intensity is about 13.5 kg standard coal / square meter.
The proportion of urban building energy consumption to total energy consumption is uneven, with Beijing having the highest proportion, reaching 47%, Shanghai and Tianjin accounting for about 20%, and Guizhou, Yunnan, Qinghai, Ningxia, and Xinjiang not exceeding 10%. The proportion of urban building energy consumption is greatly affected by the industrial structure relationship and urbanization rate. For example, in 2015, the proportion of Beijing's tertiary industry was 79.65%, which was far ahead of the country, 13 percentage points higher than the second-ranked Shanghai. With the large number of high-energy-consuming industries moving out, Beijing's building energy consumption exceeded the industry.
Data show that China's building energy efficiency has been remarkable since the 18th National Congress
Since the 18th National Congress, the growth rate of total building energy consumption in the country has further slowed down. From 2001 to 2015, the total amount of building energy consumption in the country showed a continuous growth trend, but the average annual growth rate continued to decline, from 11.9% during the 10th Five-Year Plan period to about 6th in the 11th Five-Year Plan and 12th Five-Year Plan. %, the growth rate dropped by 50%. Especially since the 18th National Congress, the average annual growth rate has continued to drop to 5%.
Changes in power consumption intensity of public buildings and urban residential buildings have turned around around 2012. The strength of the two has increased from 27 kWh/m2 and 9.8 kWh/m2 in 2001 to a peak of 61 kWh/m2 and 18 kWh/m2 in 2013. Since then, the trend has declined to 2015. In the year, the strength of the two decreases by 2 degrees and 1 degree respectively.
The intensity of energy consumption in central heating has accelerated. The average annual rate of decline has grown from 3% in the 15th period to 4.4% in the 11th Five-Year Plan and 4.7% in the 12th Five-Year Plan. Compared with the peak, the energy consumption of heating in 2015 decreased by 54%. The intensity of heating energy consumption has decreased, which has played a certain role in improving the winter air quality in the northern region. In 2012-2015, the PM2.5 concentration in the heating season in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region decreased by 9.6%.
Since 2012, the growth rate of total building energy consumption in China has slowed down, and the intensity of energy consumption has declined. The reason behind this is that China’s building energy conservation work has been further strengthened in the context of the country’s ecological civilization construction since the party’s “18th National Congress”. Improvements, new construction, existing buildings, public buildings, renewable energy, green buildings and other key projects in building energy efficiency have achieved remarkable results.
For example, during the “Twelfth Five-Year Plan” period, the building energy efficiency standards were steadily increased, the implementation rate reached 100%, the cumulative increase in energy-saving building area was 7 billion m2, and the proportion of energy-saving buildings exceeded 40% of urban civil construction area; there were 4,071 projects in the country that received green buildings. Marking, the building area is more than 470 million m2; the heating area in the north completes the 190 million square meters of heating and metering and energy-saving renovation of existing residential buildings, and the energy-saving renovation area of existing residential buildings in the hot summer and cold winter areas is 70.9 million square meters; as of the end of 2015 The urban solar thermal application area of the whole country exceeds 3 billion square meters, and the shallow ground energy application area exceeds 500 million square meters. The conventional energy consumption of renewable energy substitutes for civil buildings exceeds 4%.
The "China Building Energy Consumption Research Report (2017)" suggests that the new era of building energy conservation work should be further strengthened and upgraded under the overall strategic plan of the "19th National Congress" on the construction of beautiful China. Combined with comprehensive air pollution control, comprehensively promote clean heating in the northern region, promote ecological civilization construction; combine with people's needs for a better life, vigorously develop healthy buildings, and promote the implementation of a healthy China strategy; combined with market economic reforms To play the role of industry associations to promote independent emission reduction actions in the industry and boost the realization of China's carbon emission reduction targets.